4 The Genetic Code

Written by dade on . Posted in 7: A The Meaning of Life

The Meaning of Life on Earth
Chapter Four: The Genetic Code

 

If DNA were sent here from another word, the shippers would have had to have sent certain things along with the DNA for the realties we see on Earth to have come to exist. Specifically they would need

1. Physical substances:

 

The physical substances (DNA, MDNA, and all of the proteins and enzymes needed to make the DNA function when the time came.

 

2. Power sources

 

They would need at least two power systems, one to operate life until oxygen became available, and another to operate the more complex life forms once oxygen became available.

 

3. An operating system.

 

By itself, the DNA is just a bunch of molecules stuck together. It doesn’t do anything. To be alive, it would have to do something. It would have to ‘know’ what to do, so it would need a set of rules to use to determine the things it is supposed to do and how it is supposed to do them. The operating system is not physical matter and is not energy. It is information. (Think of the operating system that runs your computer; it is on a disk, but the disk is not needed; you can download it from the internet.)

 

This book deals with each of these three requirements in a separate chapter. This chapter is about the ‘physical substances’ that make up life. We have learned a great deal about the why physical matter works to create the thing we call ‘life’ in the past 116 years. Let’s start with a few of the more important recent discoveries in this field:

 

 

Molecules

 

Before 1905, scientists only had theories to tell them that the things called ‘molecules’ exist. There was no proof. Scientists had never seen molecules, or done any experiments that allowed them to tell if molecules really existed and, if so, what they did and how they worked.

In 1905, Albert Einstein got a paper published called ‘Investigations on the theory of Brownian movement.’ In this paper, Einstein presented mathematical evidence that the movement of pollen grains that were suspended in water, called ‘Brownian motion,’ could be explained by collision with tiny ‘particles’ of water. The math showed that, if water formed itself into ‘particles’ with one atom of oxygen and two of hydrogen, the weight of these ‘particles’ colliding with pollen grains would be exactly enough to account for the observed motion of the pollen grains.

This was seen as proof that molecules existed and were real things.

 

Organic Molecules

 

Over the next few decades, analysis of molecules advanced a great deal. The nest great milestone came in 1939, when Linus Pauling published the book ‘The Nature of the Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals: An Introduction to Modern Structural Chemistry.’ This book used various different tools to show how nature puts atoms together to form molecules.

Pauling’s book explained how to determine the exact distance that the atoms were from each other, and the angles that separated them. It explained how to calculate the bond ‘strength,’ or the amount of force holding the atoms together and the amount of energy needed to separate them. This passage is from the jacket material for this book:

 

For the first time, the science of chemistry is presented as the natural result of quantum mechanics operating at the level of the chemical bond. Observable chemical properties such as melting point, boiling point and bond strength resulted from molecular structure; molecular structure resulted from the bonds that held the atoms in position; and the bonds resulted from the quantum nature of the atom.

 

Pauling is the only person in history to win two Nobel Prizes as an individual. (Others won more than one for their work in groups, but Pauling is the only one who won two on his own merit.)

His second Nobel Prize was the Peace Prize. Pauling fought the United States government for more than a decade to get above-ground nuclear testing banned. The United States government fought back, denying Pauling a visa and putting him on various watch groups (equivalent to terrorist watch groups today). But eventually Pauling gained enough support through his grass roots campaigning that the government backed down and agreed to stop testing. So, for practical purposes, Pauling is solely responsible for the end of above-ground nuclear testing.

He was an amazing scientist. His other accomplishments stack up like a high rise. Some of my favorite books of all time were written by Pauling.

His first Nobel Prize was for his discovery of the way carbon atoms bond to form living molecules. He called the combined system the ‘alpha helix.’ His work showed that all living things are built on chains of carbon atoms that form a ‘spine.’ Since the carbon atom can’t form straight chains, these chains are always curved. He showed that this curve is always a helix and called the two kinds of helixes that could be formed ‘alpha helixes’ and ‘beta helixes.’

He showed that the atoms must conform to certain rules in terms of distances and angles from each other. This information allowed researchers to make scale models of molecules for the first time. They could and did get tiny balls made of some porous material and sticks, and physically put them together. Pauling’s book explained how far apart the atoms must be, and the exact angles of the bonds. Scientists could put together even very complex molecules as if assembling a puzzle.

 

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

 

Prior to the 1953, the term ‘deoxyribonucleic acid’ or DNA simply referred to an acidic substance of the nuclei of cells. By the 1950s, researchers were starting to realize that DNA was no ordinary substance. DNA formed itself into shapes that could be seen under microscopes as very complex. It reproduced itself to make exact copies of these shapes in incredible numbers. (there are more than 5 trillion exact copies of your nucleic DNA in your body, one in each cell of that body.) DNA appeared to be a truly enormous molecule, one that clumped together into collections of atoms so large that they can be seen with powerful microscopes (called ‘chromosomes’). DNA appears to have special properties that no other molecule had. Researchers began to try to figure out how DNA could do the seemingly impossible things it did.

Linus Pauling was also working on a model but, because he was on a no-fly list due to his opposition to nuclear bombs, he was unable to get data that would be needed to understand the exact diameter of the DNA molecule. (A researcher in England Rosalind Franklin, had measured it, but she wouldn’t let the data leave her office. Pauling couldn’t see the data but Crick and Watson could, so they had the key to solving the problem and he didn’t.)

In 1953, three researchers at the University of Cambridge in England, Francis Crick, James Watson, and Maurice Wilkins, used calculations in Linus Pauling’s book to make physical models of the components of DNA. These components are called ‘amino acid bases:’ they include adenine (abbreviated A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and uracil (U). After they had models of the bases, they worked out ways to fit them together to see if they could make a model of this complex molecule.

They found that they only fit together in a very specific way only, a way that explained the special properties of this molecule.

A could only bond with U and U could only bond with A. G could only bond with C and C could only bond with G. These bondings created something called ‘base pairs.’ The ‘base pairs’ then became something that looks like the rungs of a ladder that takes the shape of a double helix. Qqqq dna model left.

The chemical bonds holding the base pairs together in the middle are very weak. (Technically called ‘hydrogen bonds,’ they are a kind of ‘semi bond,’ which is not nearly as strong as true chemical bonds.) This allows the ‘ladder’ to split in the middle; under the right circumstances, it will ‘unzip’ almost like a zipper, turning the molecule into two ‘half ladders.’

Note about Thiamine and Uracil:

These are basically two names for the same amino acid. You will find some texts use Thiamine (T) and some use Uracil (U) for this acid, leading to some confusion. Most commonly, when talking about DNA texts call it ‘Thiamine’ and when talking about RNA (the ‘half ladder’) they call it Uracil. There are tiny quantum mechanical differences in these molecules, which is the reason they have different names, but these differences don’t affect anything that would have any impact but the most ardent quantum mechanical researchers. (I think that many scientists like such complexities, as it makes their field seem far more complex than it really is, allowing them to impress people more easily.)

Each rung of the ‘half ladders’ can only bond with the appropriate other ‘base amino acid,’ as described below. Once a molecule has split into two ‘half ladders,’ molecules found in the nuclei of cells can then ‘rebuild’ the two half ladders into two brand new ladders. Human DNA has about 3 billion ‘rungs’ in its ladder. In the new ladders, the rungs are identical to those in the old ladders, with each of the 3 billion ‘base pairs in the exact same sequence in the new ladders as in the original one.

The new molecules (‘ladders’) are exact clones of the original.

You could think of the information in the DNA as like a coded message. If you start with a ‘half ladder,’ each ‘half rung’ will be one of the four ‘amino acid bases,’ either A, C, G, or U. There will be 3 billion ‘half rungs.’ The sequence of the ‘letters’ in the genetic code is used (as we will see shortly) to create the physical molecules needed for the processes we call ‘life’ to take place. This coded message can make exact copies of itself. Under the right circumstances, each of the coded messages can turn into a new independent living thing.

This was an amazing discovery.

But even more amazing discoveries were to come.

 

The Second Coded Message In DNA

 

There is also a second, far more complex code within DNA.

This code is responsible for producing the ‘worker molecules’ in living things, called ‘proteins.’ Proteins are very complex molecules that do things in life.

Hemoglobin is one example of a protein. The hemoglobin molecule is red in color; this is what gives blood its distinctive color. Hemoglobin is a complex molecule that has the ability to ‘soak up’ oxygen when it passes through the lungs. The hemoglobin then carries that oxygen to the cells of the body, which all need oxygen for their life functions. When a red blood cell containing oxygen-saturated hemoglobin gets to cells that need oxygen, it releases the oxygen and sends it through the cell wall. The cell then sends carbon dioxide (a waste product of metabolism) back through the wall. The hemoglobin inside the red blood cells then ‘soaks up’ the carbon dioxide. The red blood cells then travel back to the lungs where the hemoglobin releases the carbon dioxide as air (which you will then exhale). The entire process then begins again.

Hemoglobin is one of more than 2 million different known proteins in the human body.

All of them have to be manufactured by the body; none of them can come from food:

The reason for this is that all proteins are far larger than the openings in intestinal walls and can’t get through from food to the bloodstream. It is true that you can eat proteins. But these proteins can’t go directly from your food into your cells. In your intestines, bacteria break down the proteins into amino acids (which all proteins are made of). The amino acids are small enough to get through the intestinal wall. Once they are there in the bloodstream, your body sends them to cellular factories that ‘reassemble’ them, through the process described below, to make the exact mix of new proteins that your body needs.

These new proteins do the ‘work’ needed to keep your life functions going.

The second code in DNA is the code the body uses to reassemble the amino acids as needed into new proteins.

Researchers have found that there are exactly 20 amino acids in all living things on Earth. (You will find them all listed in the table below, marked ‘the genetic code.’) No living thing has more or less than this. The DNA ‘codes’ for these 20 amino acids in a very specific way that Crick, Watkins, and Wilkins discovered and catalogued in 1953.

Here is the short version of how this process works (you can find as detailed of explanations as you want on the internet):

If your body needs a protein, specialized proteins find a DNA molecule and split the ‘ladder’ into two ‘half ladders.’ One of these half ladders then ‘grabs’ the amino acids needed to reproduce itself and turn it back into a full ladder.

Now you have a full DNA molecule and a ‘half ladder.’ The ‘half ladder’ is called ‘messenger RNA.’ It holds the ‘messages’ needed to make the proteins. Each set of 3 rungs on the messenger RNA is a ‘triplet’. For example, if there are three ‘rungs’ that are each made of Uracil, the triplet is UUU. There are 64 possible triplets. (In other words, 64 possible three letter combinations, where each of the letters may be one of four amino acids.) The chart to the right shows all of the possible combinations. Each three-letter combination corresponds to one block in the chart, and each block contains the name of 1 of the 20 amino acids. (Note that there are 64 possible combinations but only 20 amino acids, so each amino acid is coded by more than one triplet; in some cases there are 2 and in some cases 3.) This relationship, between the ‘triplets’ of letters and 20 amino acids, is called ‘the genetic code.’

Qqqq genetic code here.

Crick, Watson, and Wilkins discovered the mechanism living things use to manufacture the worker molecules needed for life processes to take place. Here is how it works:

A specialized protein called a ‘ribosome’ ‘grabs’ onto three of the ‘rungs’ of this half ladder. The ribosome then ‘reads’ that triplet and ‘decodes it,’ figuring out which of the 20 amino acids it represents. For example, if it ‘sees’ UUU, it knows that the required amino acid is Phenylalanine; if it ‘sees’ UUA it knows it needs Leucine. (You may want to refer to the chart to the right to see that these are the corresponding molecules.) Once the ribosome ‘knows’ which amino acid is required, it ‘grabs’ that particular amino acid from its surroundings, where all of the 20 amino acids are available. It ‘attaches’ the required amino acid to the three ‘rungs’ it is ‘holding.’ It then ‘walks’ down another three ‘rungs.’ It ‘reads’ the code to see which amino acid is called for; it ‘grabs’ that amino acid, and it ‘attaches’ it to the three ‘rungs’ it is ‘holding.’ It then walks down the ‘ladder’ again to get to the next three ‘rungs’ and does the same thing.

At a certain point, it will come to a code that tells it that the protein is finished. At this point, the ribosome will work with several other proteins to ‘cut’ the long chain of amino acids loose from the ‘half ladder’ of messenger RNA. After the new protein has been removed, the messenger RNA (the ‘half ladder’ that we started with) is available to make another protein, if another is needed.

This leaves a long chain of amino acids in the right sequence that is floating in the cell. This is not a finished protein yet, because all proteins are 3-dimensional molecules and this is just a long chain. The protein is a worker; it can’t do its job unless it has been ‘folded’ into the proper shape by other worker proteins. Every atom has to be in the exact right position for the molecule to do its job. Specialized proteins come in to ‘fold’ the chain into the required shape. Now the protein is finished and can be sent out to do whatever job it was designed to do.

Here is an example so you can see how this works: Hemoglobin is a protein. It has exactly 137 amino acids. These amino acids are coded in 438 of the 3 billion ‘rungs’ in your DNA. Each 3 ‘rung’ combination (triplet) represents 1 of these 137 amino acids. If your body needs hemoglobin, it signals to the cells to make some. Proteins divide a DNA molecule into two ‘half ladders’ (if there is none already divided) and ribosomes begin making the 137-link chain. Once the chain is complete, other proteins cut this chain loose from the half ladder (allowing the half-ladder to make another hemoglobin molecule, if necessary).

The hemoglobin molecule is not finished yet. It is a 3 dimensional molecule and can’t work as a chain. Other proteins then ‘fold’ this hemoglobin into the required shape.

Now the hemoglobin molecule is finished. Your body needed the hemoglobin to make red blood cells, the only cells in the body that use hemoglobin. Bone marrow is the only place in your body that makes red blood cells, so the hemoglobin and all of the other proteins needed to make red blood cells must be transported to the bone marrow. Once all of the parts needed to make red blood cells are available, the marrow makes them. It then sends the blood cells out into the blood stream to start their working life. Your body replaces all of its red blood cells every 90 days, so the old cells are constantly being removed from the body and replacement blood cells are being made. To supply the needed hemoglobin, your body makes millions of molecules of hemoglobin (by the above process) every minute of every day you are alive.

Hemoglobin is one of roughly 2 million different proteins that your body needs to operate. They are all made the same way. A single strand of DNA contains all the information needed to make every one of these proteins.

So far, we are not talking about a theory.

A theory is a guess about how something might work by people who don’t fully understand the exact mechanism. The genetic code is not a theory, it is a scientific fact. It is known to be the way living things make the ‘worker molecules’ needed to maintain life processes.

 

Seeding the Universe

 

There are only three possible ways that the UCA (universal common ancestor) of all humankind could have come to exist on Earth:

1. The living common ancestor could have evolved from some non-living thing.

2. The living common ancestor could come from spontaneous generation: the right combination of atoms may have been in the right place at the right time, and they could have then ‘come to life’ as a result of a natural event like a lighting strike.

3. The living common ancestor could have been created intentionally. It could have been designed to do certain things by its creators. It could have then been sent to Earth, along with many other worlds, to perform the designed functions.

 

If you understand the genetic code, you can see that the first two options can’t possibly be correct.

First consider evolution of this universal common ancestor from a non-living thing:

Evolution starts with simple things and builds to more complex things. The genetic code is extremely complex. The decoding mechanism, by itself, is more complex than even most complex computer languages in use today (see sidebar for more information):

The genetic code is a 64-character code that the ribosomes translate into a 20-character code. (You can see this by the genetic code table above; there are 64 possible ‘triplets’ or three ‘rung’ combinations of 4 ‘letters’ each; the ribosomes translate this into a 20 ‘letter’ code in accordance with the table.) The real genetic code is a 64-character code.

The first computer languages on Earth were written in an 8-character code. The 16-character operating system was introduced in 1990 and 32 character operating systems came into use for the first time in the early 2000s. Although 32 and 64-character systems exist, they are not true 32 or 64 character languages, they are modified 16 character systems and have no true 32 or 64 character functions. (They are designed for ‘multitasking’ or doing several tasks that requires 8 or 16 character messages at the same time.) Perhaps some military or other government programmers have worked out true 64 character operating systems to try to create military advantages, but if they do exist, they are extremely primitive relative to the coding mechanism for DNA.

If the genetic code had evolved here on Earth, there would have to be simpler versions of it somewhere. The earliest life forms would have simpler versions of the genetic code, and then the code would have gotten more complex over the course of billions of years.

There aren’t any simpler versions of the genetic code in any living thing on this planet. In fact, there aren’t even any other versions of it. The genetic code is identical for all life forms, from the simplest blue-green algae (so far identified as the first living things on the planet) to humans.

When the common ancestor of all living things came to exist on Earth billions of years ago, it used the exact same code and coding mechanism that human DNA uses today.

This allows us to rule out evolution: Evolution requires change and there has been no change. The genetic code is in the exact same form it was in when it first appeared on Earth.

Next, we can rule out spontaneous generation. Some have speculated that a collection of atoms that happened to be in the right configuration and then were somehow hit by a spark that brought them to life.

We can rule this out because of the immense complexity of the coding mechanisms. The code itself (the DNA molecule) has 208 billion atoms. Every single one of them has to be in the exact right place for the molecule to do what it does.

Books in this series

This book is a part of a series of four books about the important realities of human existence. They are:

1. Forensic History: uses new scientific tools and information sources to reconstruct the series of events that put the human race on the path it is now on. It explains how the realities of human existence came to be as they are. It focuses on the events led to the existence of the power structures that dominate the world today, including the entities called 'nations,' organized religions, and the massive and extremely powerful entities we call 'corporations.' These entities did not appear by magic. They came to exist as a result of decisions people made in the past. If we want to understand the realities of human existence, we have to understand who made these decisions, why they were made, and how the decisions made in the past have led to the realities that we see around us.

2. Possible Societies goes over the capabilities of the human race and the limitations we have for organizing the realities of our existence. It is an attempt to categorize all possible methods of organizing human existence—or all possible societies—in a methodological and organized way. Once we understand the different options we have for organizing societies, we can go over them to determine which of the options are able to meet our needs without constant problems such as war and unnecessary environmental destruction.

3. Reforming Societies: We were born onto a world that was organized in a very dangerous way. It was cut up with imaginary lines into the entities we call 'nations.' Each nation had formed a government which claimed that everything within that nation belonged to the people who were born inside the imaginary lines. Any society built on this foundation necessarily has very serious problems, which include powerful forces these entities surrounded by imaginary lines to engage in activities that are the most horrific destructive within the capability of any physical beings with the power to think on a rational level. The pressure to perform these horrible acts is so powerful that the industries devoted to war and the support of war, combined, make up the largest industries on Earth: More wealth, manpower, effort, skills, talents, capital, and resources are devoted to organized mass murder and destruction than any other activity on the planet. People have gone as far as building weapons that will destroy the planet if used and actually deployed these weapons, making them ready for instant use if certain circumstances arise. Given enough time, these circumstances are certain to arise.

What if we—the current members of the human race—decide we don't like these particular realities of existence? What if we decide we want some other destiny for our race (than extinction)? It is possible to organize the realities of our world in different ways. (Even children should realize this: humans need food, water, air, sleep, and protection from the elements; the imaginary lines that cut the world into 'nations' don't give us any of these things.)

But is it possible to actually build them?

If we know other methods of organizing the realities of human existence are possible, we can work out the exact structural differences between the realities of these other societies and the current realities of human existence.

We can figure out practical steps to take to change the form of ('reform') other societies. It explains the exact practical steps that ordinary people like you and I can take to put the human race on a path to one of these societies, if we should decide we want to do this.

4. The Meaning of Life explains why this matters. The societies we were born into must raise children to think a certain way so they will be willing to sacrifice for and participate in the wars that are an inherent part of societies built on the division of the world into 'nations.' To make them willing to participate, they must raise children to believe that there is a higher purpose behind the wars and behind the existence of the nations: They must make children believe that they were born to and exist to protect their nations, to respect the claimed founding principles, to honor the nation and, through ceremonies that all children are taught in schools, to even worship the nation, in the same way they are taught to worship the higher power that they were told created the nation. To make them do the horrible things that people must do to have wars, they must make children believe that this is the meaning of life and the reason they were born.

New scientific evidence is allowing us to put together messages that are encoded in our DNA and evident from the structures that are necessary for the process we call 'life' to exist in ways that can show us that there are scientifically acceptable and mathematically likely explanations for the existence of life on Earth that totally conflict with the premises taught to keep people willing to fight, kill, maim, cripple, destroy, risk and accept death for the benefits of the entities called 'nations.' If we accept science, logic, and reason, we can put together a picture of the meaning of existence that can help us see that the claimed reasons for existence that have been taught in schools and accepted for thousands of years are basically propaganda, created for the express purpose of allowing rationalization of horrific acts. If they could put together some rational picture of the reason we are here, people would not be willing to do the things that they spend their lives doing today.

What if we find there is a real meaning to our existence and it has nothing whatever to do with worshiping invisible superbeings or protecting nations? The entire rationalization for dividing the world into 'nations' and making war basically disappears. We must accept that the realities of existence on Earth are as they are because people made certain decisions. These people are no longer alive. We are here. We can make our own decisions. We can decide where we want to go from here and begin going there.

Books in this series

This book is a part of a series of four books about the important realities of human existence. They are:

1. Forensic History: uses new scientific tools and information sources to reconstruct the series of events that put the human race on the path it is now on. It explains how the realities of human existence came to be as they are. It focuses on the events led to the existence of the power structures that dominate the world today, including the entities called 'nations,' organized religions, and the massive and extremely powerful entities we call 'corporations.' These entities did not appear by magic. They came to exist as a result of decisions people made in the past. If we want to understand the realities of human existence, we have to understand who made these decisions, why they were made, and how the decisions made in the past have led to the realities that we see around us.

2. Possible Societies goes over the capabilities of the human race and the limitations we have for organizing the realities of our existence. It is an attempt to categorize all possible methods of organizing human existence—or all possible societies—in a methodological and organized way. Once we understand the different options we have for organizing societies, we can go over them to determine which of the options are able to meet our needs without constant problems such as war and unnecessary environmental destruction.

3. Reforming Societies: We were born onto a world that was organized in a very dangerous way. It was cut up with imaginary lines into the entities we call 'nations.' Each nation had formed a government which claimed that everything within that nation belonged to the people who were born inside the imaginary lines. Any society built on this foundation necessarily has very serious problems, which include powerful forces these entities surrounded by imaginary lines to engage in activities that are the most horrific destructive within the capability of any physical beings with the power to think on a rational level. The pressure to perform these horrible acts is so powerful that the industries devoted to war and the support of war, combined, make up the largest industries on Earth: More wealth, manpower, effort, skills, talents, capital, and resources are devoted to organized mass murder and destruction than any other activity on the planet. People have gone as far as building weapons that will destroy the planet if used and actually deployed these weapons, making them ready for instant use if certain circumstances arise. Given enough time, these circumstances are certain to arise.

What if we—the current members of the human race—decide we don't like these particular realities of existence? What if we decide we want some other destiny for our race (than extinction)? It is possible to organize the realities of our world in different ways. (Even children should realize this: humans need food, water, air, sleep, and protection from the elements; the imaginary lines that cut the world into 'nations' don't give us any of these things.)

But is it possible to actually build them?

If we know other methods of organizing the realities of human existence are possible, we can work out the exact structural differences between the realities of these other societies and the current realities of human existence.

We can figure out practical steps to take to change the form of ('reform') other societies. It explains the exact practical steps that ordinary people like you and I can take to put the human race on a path to one of these societies, if we should decide we want to do this.

4. The Meaning of Life explains why this matters. The societies we were born into must raise children to think a certain way so they will be willing to sacrifice for and participate in the wars that are an inherent part of societies built on the division of the world into 'nations.' To make them willing to participate, they must raise children to believe that there is a higher purpose behind the wars and behind the existence of the nations: They must make children believe that they were born to and exist to protect their nations, to respect the claimed founding principles, to honor the nation and, through ceremonies that all children are taught in schools, to even worship the nation, in the same way they are taught to worship the higher power that they were told created the nation. To make them do the horrible things that people must do to have wars, they must make children believe that this is the meaning of life and the reason they were born.

New scientific evidence is allowing us to put together messages that are encoded in our DNA and evident from the structures that are necessary for the process we call 'life' to exist in ways that can show us that there are scientifically acceptable and mathematically likely explanations for the existence of life on Earth that totally conflict with the premises taught to keep people willing to fight, kill, maim, cripple, destroy, risk and accept death for the benefits of the entities called 'nations.' If we accept science, logic, and reason, we can put together a picture of the meaning of existence that can help us see that the claimed reasons for existence that have been taught in schools and accepted for thousands of years are basically propaganda, created for the express purpose of allowing rationalization of horrific acts. If they could put together some rational picture of the reason we are here, people would not be willing to do the things that they spend their lives doing today.

What if we find there is a real meaning to our existence and it has nothing whatever to do with worshiping invisible superbeings or protecting nations? The entire rationalization for dividing the world into 'nations' and making war basically disappears. We must accept that the realities of existence on Earth are as they are because people made certain decisions. These people are no longer alive. We are here. We can make our own decisions. We can decide where we want to go from here and begin going there.

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