7 The Operating System

Written by dade on . Posted in 7: A The Meaning of Life

The Meaning of Life
Chapter Seven: The Operating System

 

If you wanted to send life to another world, sending some DNA there wouldn’t do any good if, once it got there, it just sat there and did nothing. The DNA must have the ability to manufacture ATP to provide its electricity. It must have the enzymes needed to make ATP (at least 8 enzymes are needed for this, given the most efficient ATP production method known). It must then have the enzymes to direct the electricity produced (when the ATP breaks down) to operate its processes. It must be able to use the ATP to provide energy to power the ribosomes, as they ‘grab’ the necessary amino acids to replicate the DNA ‘rungs.’ It must have the enzymes needed to attach the sugar ‘spine’ onto the ladder ‘rungs’ to make a new ‘ladder.’ It must have the enzymes needed to manufacture new amino acids when they get depleted by the reproduction process, and it must have the enzymes needed to create all of the 20 amino acids that will be needed to make the enzymes and other proteins it and its daughters will need to sustain their life processes. It will also need to use the electricity in a kind of ‘brain’ that monitors all of the levels of amino acids and other essential molecules, ‘tells’ them all what to do, and ‘tells’ them when they have done it right.

All this must be self-replicating: it must be able to make copies of itself. These copies have to be incredibly exact: If even a single rung out of each billion rungs of the DNA ladder is wrong, the copied DNA will be defective and won’t be able to do what DNA must do.

 

An Operating System

 

Before the computer age, not many people would have understood exactly what is needed to make non-living things (like the silicon that is in rocks) actually do things in an organized way. Now that we have computers, and a large percentage of the world’s people have been raised with them and learned to use them, a great many people understand the concept of ‘hardware’ and ‘software.’

The hardware is the physical computer itself. The main working parts of the computer are made of silicon, which is the same thing sand and rocks are made of. (About 87% of the part of the world we know about is silicon dioxide; this is the main component of sand and rocks.) In other words, the working parts of the machine (the silicon ‘chips’) are basically ordinary earth; if you if you break them with hammers, you will end up with sand, the same thing they are made of. Before being processed, powered, and organized with the operating system, sand is incapable of doing any of the things that computers do. In fact, even after sand has been processed into a fully assembled computer, the computer won’t do anything at all unless you provide power and somehow get the instruction set called the ‘operating system’ into the computer, in the proper way.

The same is true for DNA. DNA is a molecule made of atoms of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and phosphorous. If you have a bucket of mixed coal (carbon and hydrogen) water, and rocks that contain both phosphorous and nitrogen, they are not ‘alive’ and won’t do anything normally. Even if you were somehow able to assemble these elements into the proper configuration, which every one of billions of atoms in the exact right place to make it DNA, it wouldn’t do anything more than the bucket of drenched rocks, unless it has a power system and some sort of instruction set to tell it what to do and how to do it. We have seen the power system: the DNA basically runs off of electricity, with the electricity produced by ATP: The ATP has latent energy in the attachment of the negatively charged phosphate; when the phosphate is released, it sends free electrons (electricity) to do whatever work the living thing needs done. (Moving a muscle, for example, or replicating a protein.) But how does the electricity ‘know’ what to do? Where is its ‘instruction set’ or ‘operating system?’ How did this operating system come to exist and how did the DNA molecule get ‘programmed’ with this operating system so it can do all of the complex things it does? In order to understand this, we may want to start with an examination of some simpler process that causes inanimate matter to do organized and productive work: a computer.

 

Living or ‘Non-living’ (Dead)?

 

If you buy a computer today, it will normally come with an operating system installed. The manufacturer builds machines then buys licenses for the operating system from other companies to use the operating systems that these other companies have built. Often, the right to use the operating system costs as much as the working parts of the computer. Of course, computer companies could sell their computers for far less money if they didn’t have to buy the licenses for operating systems. (You can easily see that roughly half of the cost of computers involves the combination of the license for the operating system and the installation, because you can get computers from small manufacturers that don’t buy and install operating systems from Ebay, and the costs of these computers without operating systems are about half of the cost of comparable computers with installed operating systems.)

However, the manufactures know that most people don’t have any use for a computer without an operating system, so people won’t buy them, even for very low prices. (You can buy a computer and buy a separate license for an operating system. But most people are not capable of the task of installing the operating system—it is a very complicated process—so very few people actually do this.) The manufacturers spend a lot of money (often it is their largest input cost) to buy the licenses and spend even more money installing them and making sure they work right. If they don’t do this, the computers are basically useless and no one would buy them.

 

What is an Operating System?

 

If you buy a computer with a pre-installed operating system, you probably don’t have any real idea exactly what the operating system is or how it differs from the computer itself. If you have ever bought a computer without an OS, and put it on the computer, you will know that the OS normally comes on some sort of media (a CD, DVD, flash drive, hard drive, or ‘floppies’) but the actual physical thing the OS comes on is not the operating system itself. The OS is nothing physical, it is a set of instructions that tell the transistors (switches) on the computer chip when to open and close, allowing electricity to pass through the switches or stopping the electricity.

The OS is information.

Computer operating systems started out very small. The first operating system in use for microchip based computers (personal computers) was CP/M, created to allow the Intel 8080 chip to process basic information. The entire instruction set for this operating system consisted of 27,880 ‘bits’ of information, where each ‘bit’ was a character of either 1 or 0. (The ‘bits’ were arranged in sets of 8 which were processed together as something called a ‘byte,’ each of which could be thought of as a ‘word.’ The entire operating system was in 3,584 ‘bytes’ or ‘words.’ This works out to about 7 pages equivalent of typed words.) These ‘words’ basically tell the microprocessor how to set its switches (each ‘transistor’ in the circuit is one switch that allows information to either pass or not pass) so it can process information.

As time passed, people built larger and larger instruction sets for operating systems, and compiled them into larger and larger operating systems. The operating system most commonly installed on most new personal computers as I write this is Windows 10, with an instruction set that includes 36,960,000,000 (36.9 billion) bits of information, or 1,289,062,500 times more information than was in the instruction set installed on the first microchip-based computers.

 

How Many Operating Systems Were Needed?

 

If the DNA was sent intentionally to Earth, the people who sent it would have had to have included at least three separate operating systems, one for each of the minimum of 3 life forms they were sending. There are at least three entirely different and entirely independently operating ‘machines’ of life to be found here on Earth. (There may be more; we don’t know.) All three are made of the same component (DNA), but they all operate differently and function independently of each other. The matter part of the living things is the same (DNA) but the instruction set or operating system is entirely different.

 

The Operating system for the Teraforming Substance

 

The first operating system would run the blue-green algae that would reduce the carbon dioxide levels of the atmosphere to make the planet habitable. They would split the carbon from the oxygen (this process requires a great deal of energy, which is provided by the sun through photosynthesis), bind the carbon to hydrogen and bury it (these hydrogen-carbon molecules are the ‘hydrocarbons’ like coal, oil and natural gas that are under the ground), and release the oxygen into the atmosphere.

Although the operational details of blue-green algae are extremely simple compared to those of other life forms on Earth, they are incredibly complex relative to the operating systems of microchip-based computers. Blue-green algae have to be able to use solar energy to create a power source (photosynthesis creates ATP, which provides the energy to power the algae’s life functions, and powers the splitting of carbon and oxygen). They must then reproduce themselves, over and over, manufacturing all of the essential amino acids (all 20) needed for this themselves (there are no other life forms to make amino acids for them). They must do this reliably over the course of billions of years, with the same basic DNA spine ‘living’ for billions of years to produce more and more offspring.

If all you want is ‘life of some type’ you would only have to send down one operating system infused DNA molecule, the blue-green algae. But if you wanted more advanced life, you would have to send down at least two more: one to generate the massive amounts of electricity that would be needed to run the more complicated life forms, and another to run the life forms themselves.

 

The Operating System for the Power Source

 

The mitochondria in your body was NOT created by your body. The mitochondria reproduces by itself, without any involvement from any of the DNA in your nucleus, the one that identifies ‘you’ and makes ‘you’ different than other people. In fact, the DNA in the mitochondria is not unique to you: it is identical to the DNA in your mother (which is where it came from) and your siblings. In fact, with only incognizant differences, your mitochondrial DNA is identical to the mitochondrial DNA of every other human being on Earth. In fact, your mitochondrial DNA is the same as the mitochondrial DNA of every animal and every plant on Earth. You are, in a very real way, connected with every living thing on the planet.

Although this mitochondria is absolutely essential to the life processes of all advanced living things on Earth, including humans, it operates independently of the other processes of life. Your body supplies the environment for mitochondria to live in, but it does not power the mitochondria or get involved in mitochondrial reproduction. The mitochondrial DNA (MDNA) has its own operating system.

Mitochondria are very complex living things. They are the energy systems or power cells that produce the ATP for all advanced living things on Earth. They are the power source for advanced life. (All living things use ATP for power, but blue-green algae manufacture their ATP using an far less efficient process that does not require free oxygen.)

The mitochondria require unbound oxygen to work. (Without unbound oxygen, they ‘die’ or cease to function within microseconds. When life first appeared on Earth, there was no unbound oxygen, so the mitochondria would not have been able to produce ATP or do anything at all. If we assume that life was sent down in a single package, the people who sent this package would have realized that the mitochondria would be basically unnecessary for the several billion years necessary for the blue-green algae to make the planet habitable by advanced living things that would take advantage of mitochondria to produce their energy. (We have a synergistic relationship with mitochondria: we provide the environmental factors they need for survival, and they provide the ATP we need to run our life processes. Advanced living things help mitochondria do their thing; they help us do ours.)

 

The Operating System for Advanced Life

 

The third operating system would be the one needed to operate the advanced life forms that would run on the ATP produced by the mitochondria. These advanced life forms would be entirely different in character than the algae that performed the Earth, so they would require their own operating system. They would have ‘cells’ with many different internal structures; all of these structures would have to work together, sustain each other, and operating in sync with each other, for the ‘cells’ to remain alive and reproduce. Clearly, the operating system for these advanced living things would have to be far larger and more complex than the operating systems for algae and mitochondria.

Since the advanced life forms would reproduce in a way that led to genetic diversity, they would ‘evolve’ over time. The diversity would create some organisms that were better suited to survival than others; these ‘better suited’ organisms would survive to sexual maturity and reproduce, while less suited organisms would perish before they reproduced. The organisms would change. As the cells (and eventually multi-cellular organisms) developed new structures, the operating system would have to be able to deal with them without crashing. This means it would have to be ready for structures that did not yet exist. (Modern operating systems are built to be ready for physical components of computers that don’t yet exist: they have interfaces (USB ports, for example) that can be ‘configured’ with ‘drivers’ to interact with memory chips, video chips, sound chips, peripherals (printers, for example, cameras, and scanners) that have not yet been invented. When they are invented, the operating system is already able to deal with them, through instruction sets that are built in to the operating system.

The operating system that ran the first advanced life on Earth would have had to have had the same capabilities, or it would not have been able to accommodate evolution. Since we know evolution took place, we can infer that the operating system has been able to adapt as necessary to power the life forms. This is unlikely to have happened by pure chance. If the operating system were preinstalled, it would have to have the ability to adapt to change, while not changing its basic instruction set (necessary for DNA to use the power of ATP to manufacture amino acids and proteins, and reassemble them into new beings, under the rules of sexual reproduction.

Once more, the basic realities of existence give us evidence to support the premise of intelligent design. Advanced life on Earth requires three separate operating systems that operate independently of each other. One operating system operates the blue-green algae that made and keeps the planet habitable by advanced life. One operating system runs the mitochondria that creates the ATP that powers all life on Earth and must be produced in enormous quantities for advanced life to function, and the third operating system powers the advanced life.

The two more advanced operating systems could not have evolved from the simpler one, for a very simple reason: the oxygen needed for these operating systems to function did not exist until the first operating system created it. Although there are synergies between the two beings that are needed for advanced life (mitochondria and cellular life), the operating systems work entirely independent of each other. In fact, this is a general characteristic of all advanced Earth life (everything other than blue-green algae): it has many structures that work independently of each other to allow complex life forms to exist and reproduce. This feature of Earth life can’t be explained by evolution through random processes: for this to have happened, evolution had to have been planned, at least to some extent, with an operating system designed to create certain structures (when cellular processes were advanced enough to accommodate them) and put them into use. Then, eventually, the system would have to start producing specialized ‘cells’ to do separate things that would work together (in the same basic way that internal cellular structures work together to keep cells alive), to create a ‘body’ of a being that was far more advanced than any single-celled being cold be.

For DNA to appear at all on this world by random chance—with all of the correct configuration of hundreds of billions of atoms—seems to stretch the limits of probability. How can a random chance events arrange anything with such incredible precision? For the DNA to begin ‘operating’ at all, and doing anything whatever, stretches out probability much farther. For it to ‘operate’ as it does operate, creating all of the essential molecules needed to reproduce itself, and then assembling these molecules into copies of itself, all through random chance, is hard to imagine ever happening even once in all of time in any place at all. For it to then operate in a way that positively reeks of intent, with the new DNA-based life rearranging the environment, changing the atmosphere, altering the climate, all of which led to a world where liquid water was common and the oxygen needed for complex life existed—and then accept that this all happened by chance—would require that we throw the laws of probability out the window and disregard it all.

Then, once this happened, for an entirely new form of life to come to exist, one that somehow sensed that oxygen was now available and took advantage of that oxygen, by random chance? No sane person would speculate on something so remote. Then, for the new living things to be organized in ways that utilize the energy with so close to the maximum efficiency that, for all intents and purposes, it is perfectly efficient? (The ATP/Krebs cycle is 98% efficient; perfect efficiency is 100%.) Finally, for the new living things to start reproducing in ways that appear to be designed to lead to evolution, all by random chance? It makes more sense to simply fall back on the primitive modes of thought that have been dominant for millions of years in human communities, and call it all magic.

If we are to be true scientists, we must discard these two possiblities for the origin of life on Earth, and the origin of humans:

 

1. It is magic.

2. It random chance.

 

(The first, because it is not scientific to claim something you don’t understand happened by magic; the second, because the probabilities of it happening are so remote it is not scientific to accept it as a reasonable option.) After we have thrown these two options our, the only thing that appears to remain is non-magical intelligent design. This is the only theory for the origin of life on Earth that is both scientific and is anything other than ‘impossibly unlikely.’

If we want further evidence for non-magical intelligent design, we can look beyond the numbers themselves to the basic realities of ‘life.’ The coded messages in DNA provide more evidence that it is not random: Even if nature decided to create something that looked like letters of the alphabet, it would not be very likely to arrange all of these letters into the form of a book that you could pick up and read, and which would make sense to us. The message coded into DNA can be read (with gene sequences) and it makes total sense.

What about the power source? How could the simple blue-green algae that first appeared on this world know that oxygen was needed for life with enough energy efficiency to reproduce into complex organisms that would evolve? Is it just a coincidence that the formerly hostile planet Earth—which could never have supported humans—got changed into the perfect environment for advanced life forms? Then, is it another coincidence that mitochondria—which were capable of providing energy to advanced life using this new oxygen—suddenly materialized, literally as soon as there was enough oxygen? Then, somehow, the new power source became the engines for all life that followed? This seems like an amazing thing to happen by chance.

The final evidence comes from the operating systems of living things. We know that there are three different sets of rules that living things follow on Earth. Although the ‘hardware’ is the same for all DNA-based life (DNA is the same and produces amino acids and proteins through the same mechanism), one of the pieces of software (operating system) allows its living thing to live entirely from solar energy and produce oxygen, without any need for oxygen itself. Another operating system appears to be the operating system for a power cell: you have trillions of these power cells in your body, generating the electricity and other energy that your body needs. These power cells have done what they do (they have ‘operated’) for the entire time oxygen-using life exists.

Then we have the most powerful operating system at all, the one that runs multi-celled, sexually-reproducing living things: Nature doesn’t create many thousands of different structural elements and then hook them up together so they work as one perfect machine through random chance. It would be like expecting nature to randomly create all of the different parts of a jet fighter, all hooked up so that the fighter would operate just like an intentionally-designed fighter. Then, to top this all off, we have the miracle of sexual reproduction, a process that creates a brand new organism each and every time it operates, the perfect conditions needed for evolution.

And what is wrong with the non-magical intelligent design theory?

Why resist it?

Why fight our minds when they try to tell us that it is the only scientific explanation for life on Earth that makes sense? Why not let our minds accept that it just might be right? It may not meet the requirements needed to be classified as a ‘belief set’ or a ‘religion,’ but it seems to meet the requirements needed to be a working scientific theory for realities of existence that are otherwise impossible to explain scientifically. We can then do what scientists do: examine this theory objectively to determine how accepting it would affect other important aspects of our existence.

If thinking entities that are subject to the same laws of science as ourselves created a package and sent it to Earth some 3.58 billion years ago, what does that tell us about the meaning of life? Why would anyone do this?

Books in this series

This book is a part of a series of four books about the important realities of human existence. They are:

1. Forensic History: uses new scientific tools and information sources to reconstruct the series of events that put the human race on the path it is now on. It explains how the realities of human existence came to be as they are. It focuses on the events led to the existence of the power structures that dominate the world today, including the entities called 'nations,' organized religions, and the massive and extremely powerful entities we call 'corporations.' These entities did not appear by magic. They came to exist as a result of decisions people made in the past. If we want to understand the realities of human existence, we have to understand who made these decisions, why they were made, and how the decisions made in the past have led to the realities that we see around us.

2. Possible Societies goes over the capabilities of the human race and the limitations we have for organizing the realities of our existence. It is an attempt to categorize all possible methods of organizing human existence—or all possible societies—in a methodological and organized way. Once we understand the different options we have for organizing societies, we can go over them to determine which of the options are able to meet our needs without constant problems such as war and unnecessary environmental destruction.

3. Reforming Societies: We were born onto a world that was organized in a very dangerous way. It was cut up with imaginary lines into the entities we call 'nations.' Each nation had formed a government which claimed that everything within that nation belonged to the people who were born inside the imaginary lines. Any society built on this foundation necessarily has very serious problems, which include powerful forces these entities surrounded by imaginary lines to engage in activities that are the most horrific destructive within the capability of any physical beings with the power to think on a rational level. The pressure to perform these horrible acts is so powerful that the industries devoted to war and the support of war, combined, make up the largest industries on Earth: More wealth, manpower, effort, skills, talents, capital, and resources are devoted to organized mass murder and destruction than any other activity on the planet. People have gone as far as building weapons that will destroy the planet if used and actually deployed these weapons, making them ready for instant use if certain circumstances arise. Given enough time, these circumstances are certain to arise.

What if we—the current members of the human race—decide we don't like these particular realities of existence? What if we decide we want some other destiny for our race (than extinction)? It is possible to organize the realities of our world in different ways. (Even children should realize this: humans need food, water, air, sleep, and protection from the elements; the imaginary lines that cut the world into 'nations' don't give us any of these things.)

But is it possible to actually build them?

If we know other methods of organizing the realities of human existence are possible, we can work out the exact structural differences between the realities of these other societies and the current realities of human existence.

We can figure out practical steps to take to change the form of ('reform') other societies. It explains the exact practical steps that ordinary people like you and I can take to put the human race on a path to one of these societies, if we should decide we want to do this.

4. The Meaning of Life explains why this matters. The societies we were born into must raise children to think a certain way so they will be willing to sacrifice for and participate in the wars that are an inherent part of societies built on the division of the world into 'nations.' To make them willing to participate, they must raise children to believe that there is a higher purpose behind the wars and behind the existence of the nations: They must make children believe that they were born to and exist to protect their nations, to respect the claimed founding principles, to honor the nation and, through ceremonies that all children are taught in schools, to even worship the nation, in the same way they are taught to worship the higher power that they were told created the nation. To make them do the horrible things that people must do to have wars, they must make children believe that this is the meaning of life and the reason they were born.

New scientific evidence is allowing us to put together messages that are encoded in our DNA and evident from the structures that are necessary for the process we call 'life' to exist in ways that can show us that there are scientifically acceptable and mathematically likely explanations for the existence of life on Earth that totally conflict with the premises taught to keep people willing to fight, kill, maim, cripple, destroy, risk and accept death for the benefits of the entities called 'nations.' If we accept science, logic, and reason, we can put together a picture of the meaning of existence that can help us see that the claimed reasons for existence that have been taught in schools and accepted for thousands of years are basically propaganda, created for the express purpose of allowing rationalization of horrific acts. If they could put together some rational picture of the reason we are here, people would not be willing to do the things that they spend their lives doing today.

What if we find there is a real meaning to our existence and it has nothing whatever to do with worshiping invisible superbeings or protecting nations? The entire rationalization for dividing the world into 'nations' and making war basically disappears. We must accept that the realities of existence on Earth are as they are because people made certain decisions. These people are no longer alive. We are here. We can make our own decisions. We can decide where we want to go from here and begin going there.

Books in this series

This book is a part of a series of four books about the important realities of human existence. They are:

1. Forensic History: uses new scientific tools and information sources to reconstruct the series of events that put the human race on the path it is now on. It explains how the realities of human existence came to be as they are. It focuses on the events led to the existence of the power structures that dominate the world today, including the entities called 'nations,' organized religions, and the massive and extremely powerful entities we call 'corporations.' These entities did not appear by magic. They came to exist as a result of decisions people made in the past. If we want to understand the realities of human existence, we have to understand who made these decisions, why they were made, and how the decisions made in the past have led to the realities that we see around us.

2. Possible Societies goes over the capabilities of the human race and the limitations we have for organizing the realities of our existence. It is an attempt to categorize all possible methods of organizing human existence—or all possible societies—in a methodological and organized way. Once we understand the different options we have for organizing societies, we can go over them to determine which of the options are able to meet our needs without constant problems such as war and unnecessary environmental destruction.

3. Reforming Societies: We were born onto a world that was organized in a very dangerous way. It was cut up with imaginary lines into the entities we call 'nations.' Each nation had formed a government which claimed that everything within that nation belonged to the people who were born inside the imaginary lines. Any society built on this foundation necessarily has very serious problems, which include powerful forces these entities surrounded by imaginary lines to engage in activities that are the most horrific destructive within the capability of any physical beings with the power to think on a rational level. The pressure to perform these horrible acts is so powerful that the industries devoted to war and the support of war, combined, make up the largest industries on Earth: More wealth, manpower, effort, skills, talents, capital, and resources are devoted to organized mass murder and destruction than any other activity on the planet. People have gone as far as building weapons that will destroy the planet if used and actually deployed these weapons, making them ready for instant use if certain circumstances arise. Given enough time, these circumstances are certain to arise.

What if we—the current members of the human race—decide we don't like these particular realities of existence? What if we decide we want some other destiny for our race (than extinction)? It is possible to organize the realities of our world in different ways. (Even children should realize this: humans need food, water, air, sleep, and protection from the elements; the imaginary lines that cut the world into 'nations' don't give us any of these things.)

But is it possible to actually build them?

If we know other methods of organizing the realities of human existence are possible, we can work out the exact structural differences between the realities of these other societies and the current realities of human existence.

We can figure out practical steps to take to change the form of ('reform') other societies. It explains the exact practical steps that ordinary people like you and I can take to put the human race on a path to one of these societies, if we should decide we want to do this.

4. The Meaning of Life explains why this matters. The societies we were born into must raise children to think a certain way so they will be willing to sacrifice for and participate in the wars that are an inherent part of societies built on the division of the world into 'nations.' To make them willing to participate, they must raise children to believe that there is a higher purpose behind the wars and behind the existence of the nations: They must make children believe that they were born to and exist to protect their nations, to respect the claimed founding principles, to honor the nation and, through ceremonies that all children are taught in schools, to even worship the nation, in the same way they are taught to worship the higher power that they were told created the nation. To make them do the horrible things that people must do to have wars, they must make children believe that this is the meaning of life and the reason they were born.

New scientific evidence is allowing us to put together messages that are encoded in our DNA and evident from the structures that are necessary for the process we call 'life' to exist in ways that can show us that there are scientifically acceptable and mathematically likely explanations for the existence of life on Earth that totally conflict with the premises taught to keep people willing to fight, kill, maim, cripple, destroy, risk and accept death for the benefits of the entities called 'nations.' If we accept science, logic, and reason, we can put together a picture of the meaning of existence that can help us see that the claimed reasons for existence that have been taught in schools and accepted for thousands of years are basically propaganda, created for the express purpose of allowing rationalization of horrific acts. If they could put together some rational picture of the reason we are here, people would not be willing to do the things that they spend their lives doing today.

What if we find there is a real meaning to our existence and it has nothing whatever to do with worshiping invisible superbeings or protecting nations? The entire rationalization for dividing the world into 'nations' and making war basically disappears. We must accept that the realities of existence on Earth are as they are because people made certain decisions. These people are no longer alive. We are here. We can make our own decisions. We can decide where we want to go from here and begin going there.

Keywords: Keywords: meaning of life, the meaning of life, why we are here, who made us, where did we come from, is religion right, is religion lies, lies in religion, extraterrestrial life, life on other worlds, panspermia, spermogeneisis, possible societies, possiblesocieties.net, alternative societies, better societies, utopia, utopias, utopian societies, building better worlds, rebuilding societies, repairing societies, reforming societies, ReformingSocieties.com, non-destructive societies, nondestructive societies, fixing war, ending pollution, ending depletion, making the world a better place, leasehold ownership, private ownership, government ownership, corporate ownership, preventing extinction.

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